About Seismic Surveys
Seismic Surveys : Seismic surveys are used to locate and estimate the size of underground oil and gas reserves. Seismic images are produced by generating, recording and analyzing sound waves that travel through the Earth. These sound waves are also called seismic waves. Explosives or vibrating plates generate the waves and a line or grid of geophones records them. Density changes between rock or soil layers reflect the waves back to the surface and the speed and strength that the waves are reflected back indicates what geological features lie below. The oil and gas exploration industry has deployed this evolving technology for decades to help determine the best places to explore for oil and gas.
The seismic survey is one form of geophysical survey that aims at measuring the earth’s geophysical properties by means of physical principles such as magnetic, electric, gravitational, thermal, and elastic theories. It is based on the theory of elasticity and therefore tries to deduce elastic properties of materials by measuring their response to elastic disturbances called seismic (or elastic) waves.
There are three major types of seismic surveys : refraction, reflection, and surface-wave, depending on the specific type of waves being utilized. Each type of seismic survey utilizes a specific type of wave (for example, reflected waves for reflection survey) and its specific arrival pattern on a multichannel record. Seismic waves for the survey can be generated in two ways: actively or passively. They can be generated actively by using an impact source like a sledgehammer or passively by natural (for example, tidal motion and thunder) and cultural (for example, traffic) activities. Most of the seismic surveys historically implemented have been the active type. Seismic waves propagating within the vertical plane holding both source and receivers are also called inline waves, whereas those coming off the plane are called offline waves.
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